A knee injury can be a painful and scary experience. You may notice that knee pain can limit your ability to walk, work, and participate fully in recreational activity. You may require physical therapy to help improve range of motion and strength and decrease pain after a knee injury. If you have injured your knee, you may wonder if a knee brace is the right device for you.
There is some controversy over the use of knee braces for knee pain. A brace may limit mobility of your knee and kneecap. While doing so, the muscles and tendons that support your knee do not have to work, and therefore they may become weakened. This can limit their ability to work properly when the knee brace is not being worn, leading to further injury and functional loss in the knee.
What Does a Knee Brace Do?
A knee brace can serve many functions depending on the specific problem for which it is being used. If you have suffered a dislocated patella (kneecap), a brace can help keep the patella in the right place during walking, running and athletic activity. After knee surgery like a meniscus repair or an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, a knee brace may help stabilize the joint. A brace may also be used to stabilize the knee in the initial treatment of a fracture.
Types of Knee Braces
Knee immobilizer: A knee immobilizer is a brace that does exactly what its name implies: it immobilizes the knee joint and prevents it from moving. It is a long cloth brace that extends the length of the shin and thigh. There are metal support struts on the inside and outside part of the brace. Velcro straps hold the knee immobilizer in place.
If you suffer a fracture of the patella or upper shin bone, a knee immobilizer may be used to help keep things in place during healing. The benefit of an immobilizer as compared to a plaster cast is that it can be removed to allow gentle motion to occur during healing.
A knee immobilizer may also be used after ligament or tendon injury or surgery around the knee. It can help keep the knee straight to allow proper healing to occur, but it can also be removed for gentle motion to occur. Be sure to speak with your doctor or physical therapist to be certain that it is safe before removing your knee immobilizer.
Bledsoe brace: A Bledsoe brace is commonly used to stabilize the knee after surgery. The brace is most often prescribed after ACL surgery. It has straps that wrap around the thigh and shin and metal support brackets on the inside and outside part of the knee joint. There is a small locking mechanism that can lock the knee into full extension (straightening), or the mechanism can be unlocked to allow the knee to bend a specified amount.
After ACL surgery, your doctor will tell you at which setting to keep the joint lock. Initially, the lock is kept in full extension to protect the healing ligament. As healing occurs and more stress is allowed on the ligament, the locking mechanism may be changed to allow the knee to bend to a specific range. Be sure to consult with your doctor or physical therapist before making any changes to your Bledsoe brace.
Patella control brace: A patella control brace is a neoprene sleeve worn over the knee. It has a cutout that exposes the patella and it serves to hold the patella in the proper place during activities like walking, running, or squatting.
If you have suffered a dislocated patella, the patella control brace is a good option to help keep the patella in the proper position. Other conditions like patellofemoral stress syndrome, knee arthritis, or chondromalacia patella (CMP) may also benefit from the use of a patella control brace. Be sure to talk to your physical therapist or doctor to be sure you are using the correct brace for your condition.
Motion control brace: If you have sprained or overstretched the ligaments on the side of your knee (namely the medial collateral or lateral collateral ligament), a motion control brace may be a good option for you. This brace is a neoprene sleeve with metal supports on the inside and outside that help support the ligaments there. It is a good brace to use for athletic activity that requires pivoting, stopping and starting, or repetitive bending of the knee.
If you have injured your knee or have had surgery on your knee, a brace may help provide support and motion control during functional activity. Remember that a brace may lead to disuse of the muscles of the leg. Therefore it is recommended that you maintain strength by performing knee strengthening, hip strengthening, and ankle strengthening exercises. It is also important that the brace is fitted and worn properly to get maximum benefit from the brace and to avoid further injury from improperly using your brace.
Most importantly, the use of a knee brace should be discussed with your doctor and physical therapist. Both of these practitioners can evaluate your knee and help decide if you should use a knee brace. Your physical therapist and doctor can also work together to help determine the best knee brace for your specific condition.
Safran, M., Stone, D., & Zachazewski, J. (2003). Instructions for sports medicine patients. Philadelphia: Saunders.